Node string encoding is all over the place. Let's try to straighten out how it works.
First, some very basics about string encoding. A string is a series of bytes. A byte is 8 bits, each of which can be 0 or 1, so a byte can have 28 or 256 different values. Encoding is the process of squashing the graphics you see on screen, say, 世 - into actual bytes. There are over a million possible Unicode characters - think about all of the different languages and emoji and symbols on the planet.
You could easily represent all of the characters in the Unicode set with an encoding that says simply "assign one number, 4 bytes (or 32 bits) long, for each character in the Unicode set." One 32-bit combo for each character means you can have 4 billion distinct characters. But this would be really inefficient for most documents. For example, the English Bible or dictionary or people's email folders are mostly the characters a-z, A-Z, 0-9, and punctuation. It would be inefficient to waste 4 bytes on every "a" in the document - we want a way to represent it more efficiently.
The most common encoding is UTF-8. The main advantage of UTF-8 is that it needs a single byte (instead of four) to encode Unicode characters 0-127 - the so-called ASCII set, which includes the ones I listed above. Less common characters are represented with two bytes, and even less common characters with three bytes, and so on.
uses an encoding that uses two bytes to store each character, which translates
roughly to an encoding called UCS-2, or another one called UTF-16. The
byte of a UTF-16 code point would be 97 and the second byte would be 0. The euro
€) is Unicode code point 8364, so the first byte would be 172 and the
second byte would be 32. (The relationship between them:
8364 = (32 << 8) + 172).
That only gets you Unicode code points 0 through (256*256 = ) 65536, though,
so: if the first two-byte character is between 55296 and 56319, it's a
surrogate, and you have to read the second two-byte character to
multi-character read for you if you use the new
codePointAt operator, which
can return all Unicode code points, up to 1.1 million. The old
operator only reads one character at a time (between 0 and 65536) and you'll
have to read/decode the second one yourself.
Where this gets complicated
Because everything else in the world is moving to UTF-8, Node is also trying to move to UTF-8. This gets confusing because Node sometimes asks you to choose which encoding you want, in places where you wouldn't really expect it to ask.
Node offers a Buffer type, where a Buffer is an array of bytes,
and an API,
encoding defaults to UTF-8. So
far, so good! Unfortunately, sometimes
encoding refers to the encoding of
string, and sometimes it refers to the encoding of the bytes in the Buffer.
Buffer.from('7468697320697320612074c3a97374', 'hex') will decode the input as
a series of hex characters, and store the bytes corresponding to each 2-digit
hex character in the Buffer. But in
var a = 'tést'; Buffer.from(a, 'utf8');
'utf8' refers to how the bytes will be stored in the resulting Buffer.
Remember, strings are always two bytes per character, so declaring they are
'utf8' doesn't make sense.
encoding parameter in
buf.toString(encoding) does not refer
to the encoding of the output string - it refers to the encoding of the
data in the buffer. Unless of course you specify
base64, in which
case it does refer to the encoding of the output string. Got it?
Incoming HTTP requests are often encoded using UTF-8. Node will give you data
as a Buffer via the HTTP request's
.on('data') event handler, which can be
decoded using the content-type from the HTTP headers. In Express, this is
handled in the
body-parser module, which defers to the
iconv-lite module for
the actual encoding and decoding.
But if you expect e.g. a JSON or XML input, you will probably eventually want to turn that Buffer into a string - see the JSON section below.
When writing string data as an HTTP response, Node will wait until the last
possible minute to convert that string into a Buffer that can be written to the
socket. This leads to odd behaviors like the
net library needing to know what
encoding to use for a string you pass to it.
JSON.parse operates on a string and returns a JSON object, which may be a string or contain strings. JSON.parse and JSON.stringify don't do anything with the string encoding - if you pass in a garbage string, you get a garbage string back out.
So you need to depend on something else to determine the character encoding, before you pass a string to JSON.parse. Usually this will be your HTTP middleware; you have to trust (or verify) that it handles character sets correctly, before creating UTF-8 strings.
Files on disk
Node source files are expected to be encoded with UTF-8. That means you can encode UTF-8 source characters in a string, like this:
var x = "¢"
Where the cent character is the UTF-8 encoded byte sequence
Node starts and you try to reference
x in your program, it will be re-encoded
as a UTF-16 string. If you type the literal characters:
var x = "\xc2\xa2";
This will be turned into the UTF-16 string
"\xc2\x00\xa2\x00". So be careful
to mind your inputs and outputs.
This is all massively inefficient, of course. Most strings are representable as
UTF-8, and using two bytes to represent their characters means you are using
more memory than you need to, as well as paying an
O(n) tax to re-encode the
string any time you encounter a HTTP or filesystem boundary.
There's nothing stopping us from packing UTF-8 bytes into a UTF-16 string: to use each of the two bytes to store one UTF-8 character. We would need custom encoders and decoders, but it's possible. And it would avoid the need to re-encode the string at any system boundary.
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